Optics Physics is the branch of physics in which we study the light. 

For example what light is? Where light comes from? In which patterns light travel? And also about the processes of vision and works with the instruments that change the colours and patterns of light. 

Visible light is electromagnetic radiation or spectrum that can be detected by the human eye. Light becomes visible due to wavelength. Some lights that have short wavelength are not visible by the naked eye. Some instruments are used to see such types of light. 

Light is produced by the source. Different types of light are produced by different sources. Sources may be sun, lamp, or candle. 

The pattern in which light travels depends upon the behaviour of light. Light behaves as ray and also as a wave. So the pattern is different as a ray and as a wave. Which is briefly discussed in this post. 

optics physics

In optics, we studied light, its nature (behaviour and properties), and also about its interaction with matter. This may also the optical phenomenon such as reflection, refraction, diffraction, and interference of light.Read Complete Guide about What is Physics : 

In optics physics, we are able to understand the instrument which we use to detect the nature of light.

Types of Optics Physics: 

Optics is totally about the study of light, light processes, and vision. Light behaves like a wave as well as rays depending upon the conditions. Depending upon these properties optics physics further divides into two types.

1. Geometrical optics: 

In Geometrical Optics the behaviour of light is studied as a and we know rays travel in a straight line. But can be refracted or reflected when hits some surface. Geometric optics also describes the propagation of light as a ray. 

When light hits by a smooth surface it is reflected from that surface and comes back. Then the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence. 

When light passes through some medium, light refracted from that medium and change the path of travel. Here the sine of the angle of refraction divided by the sine of the angle of incidence is a constant term. X- rays and gamma rays are considered in geometrical optics.

2.Physical optics: 

In the Physical Optics light is considered as a wave. We know waves also travel in a straight path but they change their directions when some obstacle comes in their path. 

In physical optics, we study diffraction and interference of light as a wave. The speed of light waves in air is approximately 30×10⁸ m/s. The speed of light is about 30% slow in water as compared to some medium. Radio waves and microwaves are some types of light that are considered in physical optics.
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History of optics: 

The concept of optics physic was introduced when the earlier lenses were developed by Egyptians. Earlier lenses were made up of crystals. With the passage of time, Greeks study the theories and started work on lenses. And they were able to made lenses by filled glass spheres with water. Lenses are used to improve the vision process. 

Lenses are further used in microscopes and spectrometers to see the things that are impossible to see with naked aye. Glasses are also made using the concept of lenses for the correction of vision. Various theories were introduced that describes the light as a wave, ray, and particle, etc.

Ibn Al-Haytham was considered as the father of optics. He introduced the lenses that we use today and also works on spherical and parabolic mirrors. He made theories on the vision process and vision problems. And also give solutions to those problems. 

The earlier studies on optics were known as classical optics but modern studies are categorised as wave optics and quantum optics.

Wave Optics: 

Wave optics is also known as physical optics. It is the study of diffraction and interference of light and considered the light as a wave. In diffraction, the light wave bends from an obstacle and changes the direction. 

While in interference it is the disturbance in a medium while two light waves merged into each other. As in wave optics light is considered as a wave, which means light also has the same wavelength. The wavelength of light is about 400-700 NM. 

Quantum Optics:   

Quantum optics is simply quantum mechanics that is applied to the photon in optics. Photons are the particles that quantized the energy and momentum of light in a vacuum. Quantum optics works on the nature of light as photons.

Importance and Applications of optics Physics: 

  1. Optics becomes very important in today's technology. Optics are usually used for entertainment, surgery, labs, and photography purposes. 
  2. The study of optics is very important for future technologies. Optical communication is also a modern technique in the internet and telephony. 
  3. In the field of medicines, optics physics has more important in various types of surgeries.Electromagnetic radiation is commonly used for heart and tumours surgeries. 
  4. With the help of optics, physics vision problems are solved by eyeglasses and contact lenses. 
  5. Photography becomes possible due to optics. Cameras that are used in photography are one of the applications of optics physics. Convex and concave lenses are introduced for forming the image of objects. Photographic lenses and magnifying glass are also applications of optical physics. 
  6. LCD's, lasers, spectrometer, telescopes, microscopes, CDs DVDs, cameras, mirrors, and prisms are the applications of optics physics.

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